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Human Aspect

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Manuscripts (34)

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Chaim Weizmann on the Assassination of Russian Pogrom Organizer Plehve: A Pity He Didn't Die Years Ago

Autograph Letter Signed

2 pages

SMC 1585

Russian Interior Minister Vyacheslav Plehve, a notorious pogrom organizer and tormentor of the Jews, had been killed the week before by a bomb. Upon hearing of his death, Chaim Weizmann only wished it had happened sooner.
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Camille Pissarro's Autographed Letter in Support of Emile Zola Amidst the Dreyfus Affair

Autograph Letter Signed

1 page

SMC 919

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American Civil War Union General George B. McClellan's Antisemitic Letter

Autograph Letter Signed

3 pages

SMC 1124

Returning from Germany to the United States in the 1870s, General George McClellan speaks disparagingly of the Jewish people on board, and his success in distancing himself from the "children of Jacob."
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Secretary of Interior on Campaign to Stop German Annihilation of Jews -The Holocaust- During WWII

Typed Letter Signed

1 page

SMC 1616

Letter from the Secretary of the Interior of the United States, inviting friends to join a campaign to end the German annihilation of the Jews of Europe.
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Herzl Directs U.S. Zionists to Force McKinley to Protest Turkish Discrimination of Jews in Palestine

Typed Letter Signed

2 pages

SMC 1680

In 1900, the Ottoman Empire officially barred Jews from visiting the Holy Land. The Italian government immediately protested this violation of human rights, which distinguished between Jewish and Gentile Italian citizens. Here, Theodor Herzl aims to introduce the debate to Congress or Senate so that a country as powerful as the United States would emulate Italy's example, inspiring other countries to follow suit.
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Einstein on the Holocaust: He Never Forgot, Never Forgave

Typed Letter Signed

1 page

SMC 1782

Einstein declines an invitation to join Weltstaatliga (World State League), explaining that he can no longer participate in German public endeavors after the genocide of the Jews.
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Albert Einstein Renounces German Citizenship;

Autograph Letter Signed

2 pages

SMC 1792

Albert Einstein writes to his son from aboard the Belgenland, where he has learned that Hitler had given orders to ransack not only his Berlin apartment, but also his summer cottage. He decides whilst onboard to renounce his German citizenship, and tells his son that he will likely never return to Germany again.
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Camille Pissarro Protests Alfred Dreyfus's Conviction

Autograph Letter Signed

1 page

SMC 1895

Just five days after Zola published “J’accuse!” in the French newspaper L’Aurore, Pissarro writes to say that he wishes his name added to “the protestation against the awful judgment of the court-martial” to be published, apparently, in that crusading paper.
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General Benjamin Butler: The Jews

Autograph Letter Signed

1 page

SMC 2182

General Butler, discussing the arrest of two Jewish blockade-runners, displays his notorious anti-Semitism.
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T.E. Lawrence Wants to

Autograph Letter Signed

1 page

SMC 111

T.E. Lawrence writes to his superior at the Arab Bureau, General Clayton, to ask if he should send a letter he wrote to Sir Mark Sykes, the man responsible for divvying up the Middle East between the English and the French. Here, Lawrence mentions to Clayton that the "Jewish section" should be cleared up, and when they fight the French, the French section will fall into English hands, as well.
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Praising the United Jewish Appeal, FDR Mentions Suffering Brought on by the Nazis

Typed Letter Signed

1 page

SMC 249

President Franklin D. Roosevelt writes a bland letter to the chairmen of the United Jewish Appeal, in which he scratches the surface of the Holocaust and rather hollowly endorses the UJA.
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William Tecumseh Sherman Vents Anti-Semitic Prejudices, Discusses Runaway Slaves, & Sketches Total War

Autograph Letter Signed

4 pages

SMC 259

Writing during the war, Sherman casually blames smuggling and theft on Jews. Additionally, he depicts the hatred of the Southern population towards the North, justifying, presumably, his harsh conduct of war.
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From Prison, a Defiant Alfred Dreyfus Writes to his Family Swearing to Clear His Name

Autograph Letter Signed

3 pages

SMC 295

Alfred Dreyfus writes to his family from prison, and attempts to lead his family by example by keeping his head held high and not weakening in the fight to clear his name from the stain of treason.
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In 1936, As Hitler Closes In, Freud Acts to Help a Colleague's Son Who Has Been Charged With High Treason

Autograph Letter Signed

2 pages

SMC 314

Sigmund Freud writes to support his friend Paul Federn, whose anti-fascist son has been arrested for the second time for high treason in Austria. Freud had previously lent his friend 3000 francs and insists that he accept the additional 2000 enclosed in the letter.
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Beset By an Ally-Turned-Detractor, Theodor Herzl Says It's a

Autograph Letter Signed

2 pages

SMC 331

Theodor Herzl asks Ulla Wolff how much she wishes to be paid for her article in his newspaper Die Welt, insisting that frankness is the best way to avoid awkwardness between friends. He goes on to be even more candid, and describes his acrimonious split with one-time editor of the newspaper, Saul Raphael Landau, writing that it is a "miracle from God" that Herzl himself hasn't become an antisemite.
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Mark Twain Inquires if Alfred Dreyfus Was Struck in the Face With the Hilt of a Sword

Autograph Letter Signed

1 page

SMC 388

Here, Samuel Clemens, who had been in Paris when the Dreyfus affair struck, urgently seeks a detail of Dreyfus' degradation and abuse.
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Eisenhower's Trip to Ohrdruf Concentration Camp:

Autograph Letter Signed

3 pages

SMC 393

General Eisenhower writes to his wife, after seeing the Ohrdruf concentration camp, that he never dreamt that such cruelty could exist in this world. Poignantly, he mentions that many American soldiers do not seem to know what they are fighting for. Eisenhower ordered every unit not on the front lines to tour the camp, and writes here "now, at least, he will know what he is fighting against."
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Ulysses S. Grant Tries to Lose the Anti-Semite Label Engendered to Him by His Infamous “Jew Order”

Autograph Letter Signed

4 pages

SMC 394

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James A. Garfield's Appointment of the Anti-Semitic Selah Merrill as Consul at Jerusalem

Document Signed

1 page

SMC 438

Merrill, who held the post of U.S. Consul at Jerusalem for almost three decades – appointed by three Republican presidents – is here installed in that position for the first time by James Garfield. Cleveland would remove Merrill, but he was re-appointed by Harrison and McKinley. He is generally considered to be the greatest reviler of the Jews to ever occupy the post of consul at Jerusalem.
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FDR's 1938 Plan to Settle Jewish and

Typed Letter Signed

2 pages

SMC 473

In 1938, Franklin Delano Roosevelt remarks, in the strictest privacy, that "in the crowded state of affairs in some nations in Europe and in certain areas of the United States, existing situations could be relieved by a small but fairly constant stream of emigrants to the unoccupied parts of the world." FDR is referring here to not only "white" refugees, but to European Jews as well.
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David Ben Gurion on Anwar Sadat's Wanting Peace in 1971: He Isn't Convinced

Autograph Letter Signed

1 page

SMC 508

David Ben Gurion places responsibility for peace with the Egyptians at their feet, but also remarks that "a great deal depends on Russia."
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Alfred Dreyfus Writes to Emile Zola's Widow to Commemorate the Anniversary of the Publication of

Autograph Note Signed

1 page

SMC 510

Eight years after Emile Zola has died, Alfred Dreyfus continues to expresses his gratitude to Alexandrine Zola, Emile Zola's widow, on the twelfth anniversary of the publication of "J'Accuse."
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Alfred Dreyfus Thanks Senator Leopold Thezard Who Challenged the Refusal to Allow His Wife to Join Him in Exile

Autograph Note Signed

1 page

SMC 512

Alfred Dreyfus thanks French Senator, Leopold Thezard, who was also a professor of law at Poitiers University, for his support. Thezard argued against the illegality of the French government to deny Lucie Dreyfus the right to join her husband in exile.
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Alfred Dreyfus Reviews Case Against Him, Proclaims His Innocence, and Demands Another Trial

Autograph Letter Signed

2 pages

SMC 617

Alfred Dreyfus respectfully demands a retrial for his trumped-up treason charge from the French prime minister, and vows to prove his innocence till his dying day.
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General Eisenhower Approves a Soldier's Request to Shoot Captured Reich Marshal Goering -

Autograph Note Signed

1 page

SMC 702

Eisenhower had ordered every soldier not on the front to tour a concentration camp in order to understand not only the magnitude of the Holocaust, but the enemy itself. As a result, one soldier put in a request to shoot Hermann Goering, if he was indeed to be shot. Goering was sentenced to death by hanging, but took his own life in his cell. Here, Eisenhower refers to the corpulent Goering as "that fat ___"
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Theodore Herzl Writes a Condolence Letter, Seemingly in Connection With Anti-Semitic Attacks

Autograph Letter Signed

1 page

SMC 729

Theodor Herzl writes a condolence letter amidst an outbreak of anti-Semitic attacks beginning in Vienna, and sweeping through Austria.
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Ben-Gurion: Had a Jewish State Been Established in 1937, Millions of Jews Would Not Have Died in the Holocaust

Typed Letter Signed

1 page

SMC 765

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Chaim N. Bialik on the Jewish Persecutions in the Diaspora and the Determination to Make a Home in Zion

Autograph Letter Signed

2 pages

SMC 782

Writing in 1934, Bialik affirms that the latest persecutions of the Jewish people necessitate the creation of a Jewish state.
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A Rare Signed Photograph of Captain Alfred Dreyfus

Signed Photograph

1 page

SMC 785

Scarce signed photograph of Alfred Dreyfus, from the collection of the actor and Dreyfusard, Constant Coquelin.
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Einstein on the Proposal to Create a Jewish Homeland in Peru

Autograph Letter Signed

1 page

SMC 793

Einstein expresses support for creating a Jewish homeland in Peru, and offers to do what he can to promote the project, cognizant that lending his name to a project concerning Jews will certainly have an impact.
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Einstein, Working to Save Jews from Hitler, Discusses

Typed Letter Signed

2 pages

SMC 794

Einstein discusses the Brown Book, an expose documenting, amongst other things, the oppression of Jews. The growing momentum of speaking out against Nazism was encouraging for Einstein, but he thought that it would be more impactful if the criticism came from "only foreign non-Jews." Einstein understood that with his high profile, his public condemnation of Germany would have deadly consequences for German Jews.
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Albert Einstein Advises a Young Refugee From Germany, Then Controlled By What He Called

Typed Letter Signed

1 page

SMC 796

Einstein encourages a young German immigrant to stay in California, as it offers more opportunities than Palestine; he advises against returning to Europe, from where, as he put it, "no good can come." He especially warns against Germany, controlled by "The Hitler Gang."
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Albert Einstein Disagrees with Louis Brandeis; Argues that Palestine is Not the Key to Jewish Survival

Typed Letter Signed

1 page

SMC 798

Writing in 1936, Einstein disagrees with Louis Brandeis that a Jewish state is necessary for Jewish continuity. "The persecutions will never cause us to perish," Einstein argues, and the dispersion of Jews around the globe ensures their survival.
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Einstein On His Anti-Nazi Work:

Typed Letter Signed

1 page

SMC 801

In 1943, Albert Einstein writes to Lionel Ettlinger that had people only listened to the pair of them, the horrors of the Holocaust could have been avoided. Einstein had travelled throughout Belgium and England in 1933 - shortly after Ettlinger had released a documentary about the German aggression against the Jews in Europe - warning anyone who would listen.
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